In 2006, the artist and computer scientist Jaron Lanier published an incisive, groundbreaking and highly controversial essay about “digital Maoism” — about the downside of online collectivism, and the enshrinement by Web 2.0 enthusiasts of the “wisdom of the crowd.” In that manifesto Mr. Lanier argued that design (or ratification) by committee often does not result in the best product, and that the new collectivist ethos — embodied by everything from Wikipedia  to“American Idol”  to Google  searches — diminishes the importance and uniqueness of the individual voice, and that the “hive mind” can easily lead to mob rule.
YOU ARE NOT A GADGET
By Jaron Lanier
209 pages. Alfred A. Knopf. $24.95.