... As in the past, these world-class thinkers have responded to Web site editor John Brockman's impossibly open-ended questions with erudition, imagination and clarity.
In explaining why they have cast aside old assumptions, the respondents' short essays tackle an array of subjects, including the nature of consciousness, the existence of the soul, the course of evolution and whether reason will ultimately triumph over superstition.
Two of the most interesting answers may signal a cease-fire in the gender wars.
In 2005, Harvard President Lawrence *. Summers was assailed for suggesting that innate differences might explain why there are few top women scientists. Now Diane F. Halpern , a psychology professor at Claremont Mc-Kenna College and a self-described "feminist," says Summers was onto something.
"There are real, and in some cases sizable, sex differences with respect to cognitive abilities," she writes.
Her views are echoed by Helena Cronin , a philosopher at the London School of Economics.
"Females," she writes, "are much of a muchness, clustering around the mean." With men, "the variance — the difference between the most and the least, the best and the worst — can be vast." Translation: There may be fewer female geniuses in certain fields, but there are also fewer female morons...